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How to Tie a Tie:


Everything You Wanted to Know About Neckties and Bowties, but Didn’t Think to Ask





Jerry Carmack





How to Tie a Tie:


Everything You Wanted to Know About Neckties and Bowties, but Didn’t Think To Ask






Jerry Carmack



Copyright 2004 by Jerry Carmack


Carmack Publishing

Hot Springs, AR


Need to contact me?

Jerry Carmack

(Suggestion:  Change the # to @  and [dot] to a period and save it in your address book.  This way you don't have to mess with it again.  I do this so you, the customer can contact me, but spammers can not-hopefully!)



Copying the individual content is *never* allowed for any reason.  To do so, is to violate copywrite law.  You will violate the rights of the editor of this ebook as well as the content providers.  We will take any legal action necessary in the event you are involved in said dispute.



Printed in the U.S.A.





Intro  top



How to Tie a Tie will show you how to tie neckties and bowties. 


There are so many men who are given many a necktie and don’t wear them out of frustration in not knowing how to tie more than one knot.


There are many a woman behind all these men who are as nearly frustrated as their men are.  It’s really nerve-wracking to go to a formal party/occasion and not know how to look their best.


After reading this ebook and following the instructions in it, there will be a great deduction in the frustration level on tie-tying knowledge.


Happy tying your ties!



Chapter 1 = Neckties               top


The Knots:



The Four-in-Hand Knot is the most popular type and is the easiest to learn.  Most likely 80% of necktie people use this knot with their ties.  This knot is long and straight, but slightly crooked.


The Four-in-Hand is best with standard button dress shirt and matches with ties of heavier material that are wide in width.


Not everyone can use this kind of knot.  It is best on men with shorter necks because the knot’s narrow and long style makes the neck longer than it really is.




Tying a Necktie Four-in-Hand Knot[1]










1. Begin with the wide end on your right with the narrow end higher than the wide end. (Pictures are mirror images, in other words images are what you would see if you were looking in a mirror.)





2. Bring the wide end of the tie over the narrow (right side to left side).





3. Bring the wide end underneath the narrow end (left side to right side).






4. Bring the wide end of the tie over the narrow again (right side to left side)






5. Bring the wide end of the tie through the back of the loop (left side to center).  Hold the front of the knot loose with your index finger and thumb.





6. Pass the wide end down through the loop (created in steps 4 & 5) in front.






7. Remove your hand and tighten the knot.  Hold the narrow end of the tie and slide the knot up to the collar.





Confused about how to tie this necktie?  Then get the Tie Video!

The Knots:

Half-Windsor       top


The Half-Windsor knot is a medium triangle-shaped knot that is thought formal than the four-in-hand.  It is also a scaled down version of the Windsor knot and is a balanced knot can be best used with medium to regular dress shirt collars.  It fits best with wider ties made out of light to in-between clothing materials.  There’s more of the tying than the four-in-hand, but less than the Windsor.


Tie a Necktie Half-Windsor Knot [2]


1. Begin with the wide end on your right with the narrow end higher than the wide end.  (Pictures are mirror images, in other words images are what you would see if you were looking in a mirror.)



2. Bring the wide end of the tie over the narrow (right side to left side).



3. Bring the wide end back underneath (left side to right side)



4. Bring the wide end of the tie through the middle of the loop (right side to left side).



5. Bring the wide end around the front (left side to right side)






6. Bring the wide end of the tie through the back of the loop (right side to center).






7. Hold the front of the knot loose with your fingers; pass the wide end down through loop (created in steps 5 & 6) in the front.



8. Tighten the knot.  Hold the narrow end of the tie and slide the knot up to the collar.


Confused about how to tie this necktie?  Then get the Tie Video!

The Knots:

Windsor       top


The largest knot, square-shaped, works best with narrower ties of lighter fabrics and full, wide spread collars. This knot will eliminate space between the collar and the tie, which is a common problem regarding spread collars.


The Windsor is a thick and wide knot that tells the world of one’s confidence.  It is best for very formal occasions such as presentations, job interviews, courtroom appearances, etc.  It is best for wide collar shirts and is easy to do.


The Windsor is best for men with longer necks as it makes it’s width shortens what many see as a long neck.





Necktie Knots Windsor Knot [3]












1. Begin with the wide end on your right with the narrow end higher than the wide end.  (Pictures are mirror images, in other words images are what you would see if you were looking in a mirror.)





2. Bring the wide end of the tie over the narrow (right side to left side).





2. Bring the wide end up through the middle of the loop and to the left (right side to left side)







4. Bring the wide end behind the knot and narrow end (left side to right side).




5. Bring the wide end around the front (left side to right side) and bring wide end under left side.




6. Bring the wide end of the tie through the middle of the loop (right side to left side).






7. Bring the wide end of the tie through the back of the loop (right side to center).




8. Hold the front of the knot loose with your index finger; pass the wide end down through the loop (created in steps 5 & 6) in front.




9. Remove your fingers and tighten the knot.  Hold the narrow end and slide the knot up to the collar



Confused about how to tie this necktie?  Then get the Tie Video!
The Knots:

Pratt-Shelby       top


The Pratt Knot, which is also called the Shelby (hence what I call the Pratt-Shelby).  It is a little wide, but not as wide as the Windsor tie.  This kind of knot is good for any kind of dress shirt and ties that are wider.  This knot is for ties that are made from light to medium patterns.


Tying Ties Pratt Knot-Shelby Knot [4]




1. Putting the tie on so that the backside is facing out.  Begin with the wide end on your right with the narrow end higher than the wide end.  (Pictures are mirror images, in other words images are what you would see if you were looking in a mirror.)








2. Bring the narrow end of the tie over the wide (right side to left side).





3. Bring the wide end of the tie over the narrow end and through the loop (left side to left side).





4. Bring the wide end of the tie through the back of the loop (left side to center).




5. Take the wide end and loop it over the tie (left to right).





6. Hold the front of the knot loose with your index finger; pass the wide end down through the loop (created in step 3) in front.






7. Hold on to the narrow end and tighten the knot.







8.  Hold the narrow end and slide the knot up to the collar.






Confused about how to tie this necktie?  Then get the Tie Video!
The Knot:

Ascot    top






How to Tie an Ascot

Diagrams that show how to tie an ascot.












This is an excellent article on the lost art of tying an ascot.  You can check it out by clicking on link above.







How to Make a Dimple                    top



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The Dimple

1. After you've tied your knot but before you tighten it up to your throat, neatly pinch the fabric directly underneath the knot.

2. Keep pinching as you tighten the knot; make sure the dimple's locked in.


Chapter 2 = Bowties       top


The Knots:




The Bowtie for both casual and formal occasions are available in many shapes and sizes from clip-on, to self-tied, to do-it-yourself.  The wide butterfly type is best with wide collars and smaller bowties go best with button down and smaller collars.  Many people find the bowtie the most challenging to do, but with practice, it’ll be like tying your shoes.



Suggestions on tying
The bow tie might label you as an eccentric, so here are some precautions to observe.
Too small a bow tie looks childish. On the other hand an oversized one makes you look like a clown or like you gift-wrapped your head! The ideal size corresponds with the distance between your collar ends. In no way should the width of the bow tie exceed that of your neck.

Here some useful tips when tying:

1-2. Make the front end slightly longer.

3. Grip the "wannabe" knot with index finger and thumb of your left hand.

4. Fold the front end with your right hand as shown and then guide it behind the wannabe, still holding that one with your left hand. Slide the folded part through the back of the knot-to-be, and - voila! - you just succeeded in tying a bow tie!

5-6. Pull gently at the loops on each side of the knot. To tighten the knot, stick a finger in one loop at a time and pull, while firmly holding the opposite end.
When untying the bow tie, at first pull gently at the free end at the rear...
It is wise to keep a number of bow ties in circulation, so they can relax and reshape. (Particularly important to silk fabric).



Thanks to Petrel Bowties for allowing us to use your content!

(Tell them I sent you!)






Learn how to tie your own bowtie!






Or maybe you need help in knowing how to tie a bowtie?  Then get the Tie Video!

Black-Tie – Men






This is an excellent article on how to prepare for a black-tie affair.


   Click the link below to go to the article.


How to Dress for a Black-Tie Affair– Men







This is another excellent three-part article on how to get ready for a black-tie event.


Your Black-Tie Affair Guide






Confused about how to tie a bowtie?  Then get the Tie Video!
Chapter 3 = Pocket Squares



How to Fold a Pocket Square  [5]                     TopPS                                      top


(TopPS will take you back here.  “Top” takes you to Table of Contents)


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Here a few of the many ways you can fold a pocket square.

Astaire Fold

Cooper Fold

Cagney Fold

Presidential Fold

TV Fold

One-Point Fold

Two-Point Fold

Three-Point OR Four-Point Fold

Puff Fold

Reverse Puff Fold

Winged Puff Fold

Straight Shell Fold

Diagonal Shell Fold






Astaire Fold


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Step 1

1. Grasp handkerchief from the center, creating a puff with points facing down.

Step 2

2. Pull up any 2 of the 4 points to be level with the puff.

Step 4

3. Gather the bottom remainder and fold under.

Step 5

4. Tuck into breast pocket and arrange puff and points as desired.







Copper Fold


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Step 1

1. Cup hand and spread the pocket square centered over the hand. Push down into center of puff as a magician would press a coin into it.

Step 2

2. Gather and grasp top third and smooth down the bottom with hand. Fold up the lower third.

Step 4

3. Tuck into breast pocket and puff and fluff as desired.









Cagney Fold


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Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4





1. Lay pocket square flat on a 45 angle so that it looks like a diamond.

2. Fold in half by lifting bottom to create 2 points slightly off center.

3.Lift lower left corner and fold across other points to form third point.

4. Lift lower right corner and fold across other points to form fourth point.






Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

5. Fold right outer third toward middle and fold left outer third toward middle. (Dotted lines indicate approximate fold lines.)

6. Fold bottom point upward according to depth of pocket.

7. Place in pocket so that upward fold does not show. Adjust the points as desired.









Presidential Fold


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Step 1

1. Fold square into quarters, keeping hand finished edges to the top and right.

Step 2

2. From the left, fold under one third to one half until slightly smaller than width of pocket.

Step 3

3. Fold up from bottom to accommodate the depth of the pocket.

Step 4

4. Place in pocket and straighten.









TV Fold


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Start off with the square folded in half, then folded in half again the other way, so it's about a nine-inch square.

"TV" Fold

1. Turn the square diagonally, then fold bottom corner up to the top corner.

2. Fold the left corner over.

3. Fold the right corner over.

4. Tuck the square, point down, into the breast pocket so that the straight edge protrudes as much as desired.







One-Point Fold


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The one-point fold is somewhat like an upside down TV fold, except that you start with the square folded smaller. 

One-Point Fold

1. Fold the square down to a roughly four and one-half inch square, and rotate it so the folded corner is pointing up.

2. Fold the bottom half over the top half, so it looks like a triangle.

3. Fold over the right and left sides of the triangle, so the two side points are now pointing in ward.

4. Tuck into the breast pocket with the point up and adjust.








Two-Point Fold


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As everything is off-center, the two-point has a strange way of being folded.

Two-Point Fold

1. Fold the square down to a four and one-half inch square. Rotate the square so a point is up. Do not, however, overlap the point you are folding onto the top point. Instead, fold the bottom right point up to the left of the top point (they should look like two mountain peaks).

2. Fold the sides and bottom points inward.

3. Tuck into the breast pocket with the pocket square points up and adjust.








Three-Point or Four-Point Fold


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Start with the pocket square completely unfolded and turned diagonally (point up).

Three-Point or Four-Point Fold

1. Fold the bottom half up over the top half. If three points are desired, overlap the top and bottom points. If four points are desired, offset the points as shown.

2. Fold the left corner up and over to the right of the first two points.

3. Fold the right corner up and over to the left of the first two points.

4. Fold the bottom half up and behind.

5. Tuck into the breast pocket and adjust.








Puff Fold


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Begin by completely unfolding the pocket square.


1. Grasp the square in the center and let the points hang down.

2. With your other hand, pinch off the square at its midpoint.

3.Fold the hanging points up and begin.

4. Tuck into the breast pocket and adjust.






Reverse Puff Fold


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This fold is the same as the puff, but the points are up which gives it a casual, flowery look.

Reverse Puff

1. With the points up, grasp the square in the center.

2. With the other hand, pinch the square in half.

3. Fold the bottom half up and behind

4. Tuck into the breast pocket and adjust.

Puff And Point

This fold is the same as a puff, but one of the points is drawn out of the pocket.







Winged Puff Fold


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Unfold the square and turn it diagonally (point up).

Winged Puff

1. Fold the top point down over the bottom point.

2. Grasp both sides of the top edge.

3. Bring the top edge down from each end and push them together, forming a large pleat in the middle.

4. Fold the bottom half up and behind.

5. Tuck into the breast pocket and adjust.








Straight Shell Fold


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Start off with the pocket square folded in half, then folded in half again the other way, so it forms about a nine-inch square.

Straight Shell

1. Make a pleat in the square by pushing the bottom edge up slightly over the rest of the square.

2. Repeat the process to create a second, third, and even a fourth pleat, as desired.

3. Fold the right half behind the left half.

4. Tuck into the breast pocket with the folded edge up and adjust.








Diagonal Shell Fold


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Start off with the pocket square folded in half, then folded in half again the other way, so it forms about a nine-inch square.

Diagonal Shell

1. Turn the square diagonally (point up). Make a pleat in the square by pushing the bottom up slightly over the rest of the square.

2. Repeat the process to make a second, third, even a fourth pleat, as desired. Fold the top point under (this step is not shown).

3. Fold the right half under the left.

4. Tuck into the breast pocket, folded edge up, and adjust.



Chapter 4 = History

Necktie History

Copyright (c) 2004 by Jerry Carmack.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify only this document, “Necktie History” under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".



Modern neckties, shown here tied as if they were on a person, may be found in a plethora of colors and designs.

A necktie (usually just called a tie) is a piece of material worn around the neck. The modern necktie's original name was the four-in-hand tie. It is usually a dress requirement for businessmen and probably the most common father's gift in the world. The modern necktie along with the Ascot and the bowtie are all descended from the cravat.



1 Cravat

2 Ascot

3 Four-in-Hand


A cravat is the neckband that was the forerunner of the modern tailored necktie. From the end of the 16th century the term "band" applied to any long strip of cloth worn round the neck that was not a "ruff." The ruff itself had started its career in the earlier 16th century as a starched and pleated strip of white linen that could be freshly changed to keep the neck of a doublet from getting increasingly grimy. A "band" could indicate a plain attached shirt collar or a detached "falling band" that draped over the doublet collar.


Necktie fashions have changed over time.

This 1818 pamphlet depicts various styles

of tying a cravat.










The modern form of the "cravat" originated in the 1630s. Like most male fashions between the 17th century and World War I, it had a military origin. During the reign of Louis XIII of France, Croatian mercenaries enlisted in a regiment that supported the King and Richelieu against the Duc de Guise and the Queen Mother, Marie de Medici. The traditional outfit of these Croats aroused curiosity in Paris on account of the


unusual and picturesque scarves distinctively tied about their necks. The scarves were made of various cloths, ranging from coarse material for common soldiers, to fine linen and silk for officers. The word 'cravat' comes from the French cravate, and many sources state that this is a corruption of "Croat". However there is evidence that the word was in use in France in the 14th century and in Italy in 16th century. In one of his ballads, the French writer Eustache Deschamps (c. 1340-1407), used the phrase 'faites restraindre sa cravate' (pull his cravat tighter). Whatever the origin of the word the new form of dress became known as a cravate and the French were quite ready to give up the starched linen ruffs, that they had been wearing and adopt the new fashion of loose cravates made of linen or muslin with broad edges of lace.

On his return to England from exile in 1660, Charles II brought with him this new word in fashion:

“A cravatte is another kind of adornment for the neck being nothing else but a long towel put about the Collar, and so tyed before with a Bow Knott; this is the original of all such Wearings; but now by the Art and Inventions of the seamsters, there is so many new ways of making them, that it would be a task to name, much more to describe them.” —Randle Holme, Academy of Armory and Blazon, 1688.

A gentleman's cravat would be made of fine lace. Grinling Gibbons the famous carver and sculptor, made a highly realistic one, carved out of a piece of white limewood.

During the wars of Louis XIV of 1689 - 1697, the flowing cravat was replaced, except for court occasions, by the more current and equally military Steinkirk, named for the battle in Flanders of 1692. The Steinkirk was a long narrow, plain or lightly trimmed neckcloth worn with military dress, wrapped just once about the neck in a loose knot,


with a lace of fringed ends that were twisted together and tucked out of the way into the button-hole (of either a coat or a waistcoat) The steinkirk proved to be popular with both men and women until the 1720s.

The Macaronis reintroduced the flowing cravat in the 1770s and the manner of tying one became a matter of personal taste and style, to the extent that after Waterloo, the neckwear itself was increasingly referred to as a "tie".


In the United States an ascot is another name for a cravat but in Britain it refers to different sort of a formal neckwear. The Ascot has a narrow neckband and wide wings that are folded over and held firm with a pin. The Ascot became popular in the 1880s, when it began to be worn by the upper-middle classes on formal occasions, notably the Royal Ascot race meeting from which it takes its name.


The four-in-hand tie became fashionable in Britain in the 1850s. Early ties were simple rectangular strips of cloth cut on the square with square ends. The name four-in-hand originally described a carriage with four horses and one driver. Later it became the name of a Gentlemen's club in London. Some reports state that the carriage drivers tied their reins with a four-in-hand knot (see below) whilst others claim that the carriage drivers wore their scarves in the manner of a four-in-hand, but the most likely explanation is that members of the club began to wear the new style of neckwear making it fashionable. In the later half of the 19th century the four-in-hand knot and the four-in-hand tie were synonymous. As stiff collars gave way to soft turned down collars the four-in-hand gained popularity. With its increasing dominance, the term four-in-hand fell out of usage and it was simply called a 'long tie' or a 'tie'.



In 1926 Jesse Langsdorf from New York introduced ties cut on the diagonal which meant that the tie fell evenly from the knot without twisting.

There are four main knots used. The simplest, the four-in-hand knot, is probably used by the vast majority of tie wearers. The other three (in order of difficulty) are the Pratt knot (also known as the Shelby knot), the Half-Windsor knot and the Windsor knot. The Windsor knot is named after the Duke of Windsor, although he himself did not use it. The Duke favoured a thick knot and achieved this result by having ties specially made of thicker material. In the late 1990s two researchers (Thomas Fink and Yong Mao) of Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory used mathematical modelling to discover that it is possible to tie 85 different knots with a conventional tie. They found that in addition to the four well-known knots, 6 other knots produced aesthetically pleasing results.

Today, ties are part of the formal clothing of males in both Western and non-Western societies, particularly in business. They have also found their way into the outfits of fashionably trail blazing females. Generally it is a thick swath made from silk or cotton, and is tied around the collar.




Bowtie History      

Copyright (c) 2004 by Jerry Carmack.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify only this document, “Bowtie History” under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or  any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".


Red bowtie



The bowtie is a men's fashion accessory, popularly worn with other formal attire, such as suits. It consists of a ribbon of fabric tied around the collar in a symmetrical manner such that the two opposite ends form loops.

It originated among Croatian mercenaries during the European wars of the 17th century: the Croats used a scarf around the neck to hold together the opening of their shirts. This method was soon adopted by the upper classes in France (then a leading country in the field of fashion) and flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries. The famous French writer Honoré de Balzac even wrote a book on the subject.

Towards the end of the 19th century the free ends of the bowtie grew longer, and the necktie was born, and the bowtie slowly went out of fashion in all but the architecture classes where it has remained a defining item of the architect’s uniform.

Although the necktie proves most prominent in today's society, being seen at business meetings, formal functions and sometimes even at home, the bowtie is making a comeback with fun-formal events such as dinner and cocktail parties, and nights out on the town.


Men Known for their Bowties

  • Tucker Carlson
  • Winston Churchill
  • Groucho Marx
  • Stan Laurel
  • Fred Allen





Learn how to tie your own bowtie!






Or maybe you need help in knowing how to tie a bowtie?  Then get the Tie Video!


History of Neckwear  [6]

by Alan Flusser

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The history of neckties dates back a mere hundred years or so, for they came into existence as the direct result of a war. In 1660, in celebration of its hard-fought victory over the Ottoman Empire , a crack regiment from Croatia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire), visited Paris. There, the soldiers were presented as glorious heroes to Louis XIV, a monarch well known for his eye toward personal adornment. It so happened that the officers of this regiment were wearing brightly colored handkerchiefs fashioned of silk around their necks. These neck cloths, which probably descended from the Roman fascalia worn by orators to warm the vocal chords, struck the fancy of the king, and he soon made them an insignia of royalty as he created a regiment of Royal Cravattes. The word "cravat," incidentally, is derived from the word "Croat."

It wasn't long before this new style crossed the channel to England. Soon no gentleman would have considered himself well-dressed without sporting some sort of cloth around his neck--the more decorative, the better. At times, cravats were worn so high that a man could not move his head without turning his whole body. There were even reports of cravats worn so thick that they stopped sword thrusts. The various styles knew no bounds, as cravats of tasseled strings, plaid scarves, tufts and bows of ribbon, lace, and embroidered linen all had their staunch adherents. Nearly one hundred different knots were recognized, and as a certain M. Le Blanc, who instructed men in the fine and sometimes complex art of tying a tie, noted, "The grossest insult


that can be offered to a man comme il faut is to seize him by the cravat; in this place blood only can wash out the stain upon the honor of either party."

In this country, ties were also an integral part of a man's wardrobe. However, until the time of the Civil War, most ties were imported from the Continent. Gradually, though, the industry gained ground, to the point that at the beginning of the twentieth century, American neckwear finally began to rival that of Europe, despite the fact that European fabrics were still being heavily imported.

In the 1960s, in the midst of the Peacock Revolution, there was a definite lapse in the inclination of men to wear ties, as a result of the rebellion against both tradition and the formality of dress. But by the mid-1970s, this trend had reversed itself to the point where now, in the 1990s, the sale of neckwear is probably as strong if not stronger than it has ever been.

How to account for the continued popularity of neckties? For years, fashion historians and sociologists predicted their demise--the one element of a man's attire with no obvious function. Perhaps they are merely part of an inherited tradition. As long as world and business leaders continue to wear ties, the young executives will follow suit and ties will remain a key to the boardroom. On the other hand, there does seem to be some aesthetic value in wearing a tie. In addition to covering the buttons of the shirt and giving emphasis to the verticality of a man's body (in much the same way that the buttons on a military uniform do), it adds a sense of luxury and richness, color and texture, to the austerity of the dress shirt and business suit.

Perhaps no other item of a man's wardrobe has altered its shape so often as the tie. It seems that the first question fashion writers always ask is, "Will men's ties be wider or narrower this year?"


In the late 1960s and early 70s, ties grew to five inches in width. At the time, the rationale was that these wide ties were in proportion to the wider jacket lapels and longer shirt collars. This was the correct approach, since these elements should always be in balance. But once these exaggerated proportions were discarded, fat ties became another victim of fashion.

The proper width of a tie, and one that will never be out of style, is 3 1/4 inches (2 3/4 to 3 1/2 inches are also acceptable). As long as the proportions of men's clothing remain true to a man's body shape, this width will set the proper balance. Though many of the neckties sold today are cut in these widths, the section of the tie where the knot is made has remained thick--a holdover from the fat, napkinlike ties of the 1960s. This makes tying a small, elegant knot more difficult. Yet the relationship of a tie's knot to the shirt collar is an important consideration. If the relationship is proper, the knot will never be so large that it spreads the collar or forces it open, nor will it be so small that it will become lost in the collar.



Confused about how to tie neckties?  Then get the Tie Video!


History of Silk


Copyright (c) 2004 by Jerry Carmack.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify only this document, “History of Silk” under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".


Silk (< OE sioloc probably < L. SERICVS / Gr. σηρικóς ("silken") < L. SERES / Gr. Σηρες ("Chinese") or alternatively < Ch. or , pronounced "sì") meaning "silk", the pictogram representing two strands of silk.) is a natural fiber that can be woven into textiles. It is obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm larva, in the process known as sericulture, which kills the larvae.

Silk was first developed in early China, possibly as early as 6000 BC and definitely by 3000 BC. Legend gives credit to a Chinese Empress Xi Ling Shi. Though first reserved for the Emperors of China, its use spread gradually through Chinese culture both geographically and socially. From there, silken garments began to reach regions throughout Asia. Silk rapidly became a popular luxury fabric in the many areas accessible to Chinese merchants, because of its texture and lustre. Because of the high demand for the fabric, silk was one of the staples of international trade prior to industrialization.

Perhaps the first evidence of the silk trade is that of an Egyptian mummy of 1070 BC. In subsequent centuries, the silk trade reached as far as the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa. This trade was so extensive that the major set of trade routes between Europe and Asia has become known as the Silk Road.

The Emperors of China strove to keep the knowledge of sericulture secret from other nations, in order to maintain the Chinese monopoly on its production. This effort at secrecy had mixed success. Sericulture reached Korea around 200 BC with Chinese settlers, and by 300 AD the practice had been established in India. Although the


Roman Empire knew of and traded in silk, the secret was only to reach Europe around AD 550, via the Empire of Byzantium. Legend has it that the monks working for the emperor Justinian were the first to bring silkworm eggs to Constantinople in hollow canes.

Venetian merchants traded extensively in silk and encouraged silk growers to settle in Italy. By the 13th century Italian silk was a significant source of trade. Italian silk was so popular in Europe that Francis I of France invited Italian silkmakers to France to create a French silk industry, especially in Lyon. The French Revolution interrupted production before Napoleon took power.

James I of England introduced silk growing to the American colonies around 1619, ostensibly to discourage tobacco planting. Only the Shakers in Kentucky adopted the practice. In the 1800s a new attempt at a silk industry began with European-born workers in Paterson, New Jersey, and the city became a US silk centre, although Japanese imports were still more important.

World War II interrupted the silk trade from Japan. Silk prices increased dramatically and US industry begun to look for substitutes, which led to the use of synthetics like nylon. Synthetic silks have also been made from lyocell, a type of cellulose fibre, and are often difficult to distinguish from real silk.

Silk has recently come under fire from animal rights activists who maintain that the common practice of boiling silkworms alive in their cocoons is cruel.

In addition to clothing manufacture and other handicrafts, silk is also used for items like parachutes, bicycle tires, comforter filling and artillery gunpowder bags. Silk undergoes a special manufacturing process to make it adequate for its use in surgery as non-absorbable sutures. Chinese doctors have also used it to make prosthetic arteries.

Chapter 5 = Dressing for a Job Interview                  top


Clothing, the Job Interview and You:

How to Create a Good First Impression

By Jerry Carmack


Determining How Much to Spend on a Necktie

The rule of thumb is to take your age and add the number of years experience in the position you’re applying for and multiply by 2.  That should give you a rough estimate of the retail price of a tie.


One example:  You’re 25 with 5 years experience, you shouldn’t spend more than $60.  If you’re 40 and have 15 years experience, don’t spend more than $110.



What is the most important part of the conservative outfit for men?  Think of the suit as the frame, the white shirt as the canvas, and the tie is the picture.  Change the first two and no one may notice.  If you change the “picture” (tie) and everyone notices.  So make sure your “picture” is such that it accents the frame and canvas, and not be the center of attention.  What I’m saying literally is don’t wear a tie that’s so gaudy, flashy, or whatever that everyone is paying attention to your clothes (tie or other) and not to *you.” 


The important thing when selecting a tie is coordinating it with the suit overall, not matching it.  Don’t wear anything flashy or fancy here.  Absolutely no cartoon or symbol ties.  Cartoon ties have the Simpson’s, Mickey Mouse, etc.  Symbol ties have golf clubs, money signs, Christian crosses, etc.  The ties should have solid colors and



if they do have patterns, they should be small.  You need to balance representing the corporate culture and your personality. 


Four-In-Hand Knot

The best tie for most interviews is the four-in-hand knot.  This tie is best for men with thick necks because it makes your neck look longer than it really is.  It is best worn with wide-spread collar shirts.  Why?  It is a little cock-eyed and the wide-spread collar makes the four-in-hand look the best.  This means you will look your best.


Windsor Knot

This is the best tie for interviews for men with thin necks.  It makes your neck look wider than it is (I’m sure you’ve figured that out that the Windsor is the logical opposite of the four-in-hand).  This knot is also best with wide-spread collars (absolutely *no* button down collar shirt).


Buying a Tie

Be sure to buy a 100% silk tie.  They are the best and look the best.  You don’t buy at the most expensive store in town to get the best tie.  You can go to any men’s store or shop around for sales, etc.


Tie Accessories

One of the most neglected part of the outfit is the tie accessory.  I’m talking about tie clips, chains, tags, and bars.  I recommend the tie clips, as this is classy look.  This is very important in completing your outfit.  When you wear neckties, they often get in the way.  For example, during the interview, you don’t have to mess with your tie when you


sit down to start the interview.  You also don’t have to keep adjusting your tie as the interview progresses-this is a gesture of nervousness.


Dress Conservatively

What to wear to an interview?  If in doubt, dress conservatively.  Why?  Studies show that the clothes you wear are the most important factor in creating an impression-good or bad.  First impressions are created via clothing selected, etc first and then on general communication and interview skills.  Most people judge and decide for or against another in the first two minutes of a job interview.  So make your impression a good one!


Even if you’re wildly creative in your clothing chooses, tune all that way down!  When the interview is over and the interviewer hires you (hip, hip, hooray!), you can go back to same-ole-same-ole creative thing on the job.


I say this because if you dress too casual (or sometimes too bizzed up), the interviewer will look you over and will decide in the first 5 seconds to hire you or not.  The rest of the interview is checking out if their initial impression is correct or not.


It is possible to over dress.  It is better to overdo than under due.  In other words, if you arrive at the interview and you see everyone is casual and you’re in a suit jacket and tie, you can always take off your jacket and tie and vo-la!  You’re ready to go.  However, if you under dress, then you’re stuck.


As strongly suggested, dress conservatively; but dress in clothes that are comfortable for *you.*  Wear clothes that show off your personality, but never wear anything flashy. 



Knowing What To Wear to Each Interview

Call, email, or fax the company where going to have the interview and ask what their dress standards are.  Most employers would be impressed that you showed enough to

care.  Simple.  If that’s too brazen for you, then you could drive to the business in question and find out what the other workers are wearing.  Then dress one step above that (remember?).


Choose your clothes the night before.  This way you’ll notice that loose or missing button, ripped tie, frayed cuffs, stains, and grubby-looking shoes, etc.   As a matter of fact, some interviewers look at your shoes as the final criteria for accepting or rejecting you.  It’s weird, but true.  So get these and whatever else you find corrected *then* and you’ll look great!  Otherwise, if you dress the day of the interview and you discover these things, you’re in trouble!


For females, note:  some interviews notice if you dress overtly feminine or masculine.  They may or may not like the extreme.  So if you’re the “tomboy” type, then get girly, girl!-at least for the interview!


White Shirts

To do the conservative thing, think of a white shirt as your friend.  Buy at least three of them, but be sure they’re the right size.  You notice that shirts say 15-32/34?  The first is the neck at the Adam’s apple and the second is from middle of your neck (where your neck meets your upper back) going down the shoulder to your wrist. 


Spread collars are best.  Avoid tabbed, pointed, or over-sized collars.




The Suit

If you only wear a suit only for interviews and other special occasions (weekly worship [or less], weddings, funerals, etc), then you’re find.  However, if you’re in a business environment and wear a suit everyday, it is strongly suggested you buy another suit. 


The best colors for your suit would be navy, pinstripe, or charcoal grey.  Avoid dark navy or black.  They make people think you’re clubbing or grieving.  Also avoid, brown, tweed, or green.  They are too informal for most interviews.


Shoes and Belt

Shoes and belt should always be dark (black or dark brown).  The belt should have a conservative buckle.  Shoes and belt should always match.  In other words, if the shoes are black or brown, then the belt is black or brown, etc.


Avoid loafers for shoes-too casual.  The best shoe are black cap shoes.  Be sure your shoes are clean, polished, have no rounded heels nor overly worn soles.  This will give the impression that you don’t care, which I’m sure you don’t want to create thus.


Summary of Interview Attire Guidelines


  • A clean pressed dress shirt and tie
  • Conservative colors
  • A suit or sports coat and dress slacks
  • Well-polished dress shoes
  • Neatly groomed



  • Conservative blouse
  • Business suit
  • Conservative colors
  • Properly fitting attire
  • Non-revealing attire
  • Conservative hairstyle


Men and Long Hair

On hair:  for men, most interview experts say to get a haircut and to do so 2-3 days *before* the interview.  Do *not* wait until the day of the interview to get a haircut, or you will not be used to it.  This will add to all the other stresses that are happening during that time.


Before you get your haircut, look through all the haircut chooses (and yes, I know, you got to tear yourself away from the pretty girl hair pics, but you gotta do it!).  Tell your cosmetologist (the new word for barber) you want a business haircut, and her enough info so she can do you justice!


If you’re a man with long hair and you don’t want to part with it, then put it in a neat ponytail.  If you don’t have enough hair to work with, and you look shaggy, then slick it back with hair gel.  When it dries, then ponytail it.


If you have long hair and the men where you want to work all have short hair, either get a haircut, or ignore them as a job source (and keep your long hair).  Of course, you can always apply, you never know.




Smokers, Take Note 

If you’re not going to quit, then get into the habit of smoking outside!  This is especially important during your job hunt.  Why?  Because if your interviewer is a non-smoker, he or she *will* know you are a smoker.  You will reek of smoke IF you smoke inside.


And yes, legally, an employer can’t say “You’re a smoker, I’m not going to hire you!”  However, it is an unofficial fact that if all things are equal, a non-smoker will be hired over a smoker every time.  If you’re a smoker, this is a disadvantage to you.


Because of this, while job hunting and especially before an interview, be sure that you dry clean all of your clothes (I’m talking:  your suit jacket, shirt, and pants.)  Buy new socks, underwear, and hosiery (female) and keep all these clothes in some kind of air-tight bag.  Put all in a part of your home that the farthest away from all the smoking.


And if you do smoke with your interview clothes on, do so outside only!  NOT in the car going straight home after the interview.  Wait until you are home and strip naked (seriously), put all these clothes in your “smoke-free zone.”  Only then can you smoke freely.  And only then do your shopping, visiting, etc.  If you don’t, you’ll reek of smoke and will have to dry clean after each and every interview.


By keeping all clothes away from the tobacco smell and smoking outside, you reduce most (but not all) of the smoke odor.  This will give you one more edge over non-smokers.






Caught in a dry-cleaning pinch while shuttling around interviews?

When you are home between interviews and don’t have enough time to go to the dry cleaners, much less wait from them to finish, then after you strip naked and throw your

interview clothes (jacket, pants, shirt, and tie) in the dryer with a packet of Dryel, then this will get rid of the smell (and press them as well).



1.  Get ready for the interview at least 3 days (or minimum of 1 [one] day) ahead.

2.  Research the company.  Find out what kind of business they do, what they sell, etc.

3.  Practice a mock interview, with someone you know and trust (who supports your job-hunting efforts).  If not, then use a tape recorder and use another false voice for the “interviewer.”

4.  Bring extra:  resumes, cover letters, references, portfolio, etc.  Don’t assume that the person interviewing you has a copy of your resume.  He may or may not.  Be over-prepared.

5.  Don’t fold-up your resume in any way for any reason!  It makes you look sloppy and lazy.

6.  Regarding colognes, aftershaves, make-up, and jewelry:  Go easy on any of this stuff.  Don’t smell like a cologne factory because your interviewer just might be allergic to the stuff.  Take off your nose rings, lip rings, ear rings (men), etc, etc.  Women, wear


one set of small ear rings and a discreet necklace.  Nothing loud or flashy.  If in doubt, don’t.

7.  Cover all tattoos.  This means if you’re a tattoo “freak” and have them on your arms to your wrists, then it is strongly suggested you wear a long-sleeve shirt.  This includes summer time.   And yes, you’ll get strange looks from passer-bys; but it’s either that or the interviewer seeing your tattoos and “freaks out” (without you knowing about it).  You very likely be assigned to the unofficial, “don’t hire him/her” category. 

8.  Women, use a briefcase and leave your purse at home!  It looks more professional.  Even if you’re one those women who have a purse the size of a kitchen sink, trash the pack-rat mentality for the job hunting process.  Use only what you absolutely need! 

9.  Don’t wear sunglasses during the interview (esp. the “mirror” kind).  This creates the impression that you’re trying to hide something.

10.  Use proper English.  Don’t use slang or “street” English.  Be polite.

11.  Men or women, giving a good handshake is very important if you want to impress the interviewer.  Not giving a handshake is better than a limp one.  So make it firm and strong.  But don’t give a bone-crushing handshake either, you might intimidate the interviewer and he’ll get ticked off.  You’re already starting off to a bad start.  So go easy.

12.  Go alone to the interview.  Bringing anyone else creates the impression that you’re insecure and need someone to “prop” you up. 

13.  Never sit down until an interviewer offers you a chair.  Don’t go in and “make yourself at home.”  Treat it as a formal affair.


14.  When you grab a chair, sit straight.  Don’t slouch, it makes you look lazy.

15.  Lean forward.  This shows interest.  Leaning back shows a “don’t care” attitude.

16.  Don’t show too strong facial expressions.  It’s a turnoff for many employers.  Why?  Because you could be coming on too strong.

17.  Send a thank you note the next day after the interview.  Do you send the traditional handwritten or typed and snail mailed or email one?  It’s up to you.  My educated guess is that most people send typed via snail mail, and send an email thank you at the same time and leave it at that.  Very few people send handwritten notes.  If you want to stand out, send handwritten.




eBooks to check out on job-hunting, etc:


Perfect Interview, The


How to Find Your Perfect Job


Job Interviews Success System


You Don’t Know Squat About Job Hunting






Chapter 6 = Your Tie – Buying, Caring for, etc






Tie It Up: 8 Great Neckties

By Chris Rovny [7]

Fashion Correspondent - Every Friday

Fashion Tip





NOTE:  This is great article on different kinds of ties.   Check it out here









Buying a Tie                     top


Try the tie make sure it is well-knotted.

The best materials for ties are either silk or silk/polyester combo.

The inside of the tie should be lined with material that’s stiff to keep the tie shaped correctly.

Average ties come in lengths from 52-58, if you’re a very tall man, consider ordering custom-made ties.

If you’re going to buy a tie for a suit you already have, and then bring the suit with you to be sure the tie matches it.

The lining of the tie also holds its shape.  The best ties are lined with 100% wool or a wool mix.  More wool means higher quality.

The best ties are cut across the material (cut on the bias); this’ll let the tie fall straight without curling after its knotted.  To test for this, wrap the tie in your hand to see if it begins to twirl in the air, if it doesn’t then it’s a good quality tie.

Give the tie a good look-over for loose threads and miss weaves.

Like most things, the more money you spend, the higher the quality.

If the tie feels rough when you touch it, that means the silk is made from inferior materials.



Wearing a Tie            top


Avoid clip on ties.  For bowties, self-tied (neck-wrapped), are ok.

The length of your tie should be to the same level as your pants.

* Your tie should be darker than the color of your shirt.

Avoid ties that are too bright.

The tie’s general width is 3.5 inches.  This width will always be in fashion.

The width of tie should follow the same width as the width coat’s lapel.  In other words:  Lapel is wide = tie should be wide.  Label is narrow = tie should be narrow.

The knot of the tie should be in proportion to the collar.  If too big, it’ll force the collar open too much.  If too small, the knot becomes lost in the tie.

When choosing colors of your tie, it should not be so different as to clash with your suit.  But the colors should not be so similar that it fades into the suit.

There are two things to think about regarding a patterned tie:  the main color should complement your suit and the secondary color, your shirt.

Textures of your tie should match your suit.  If you have a shiny silk tie, then you should wear a shiny silk shirt.  If you have a wool tie, then a wool suit.



Caring for your Tie                 top


A tie that is care for properly can last a long time.

If you hang up you ties, it’ll help take out some of the wrinkles.  Knit ties can stretched if hung, so roll them up and put them in a drawer.

Buy a rack specially designed to hang ties.  Hanging ties on hangers means they will become twisted or slip off.

To remove wrinkles in a tie, roll it up from the narrow end first and leave it for a few days.

To prevent fading, store ties out of direct sunlight.

When traveling, roll up ties loosely and put inside a pair of socks or if you have one, a tie case.

Any loose threads should be cut.  To pull them will really mess up your tie.

Wearing a tie twice in a row is a bad idea.  Why?  It needs time to return to normal shape.

When not wearing your tie, you should always unknot it.  To not do so is to mess up the tie and cause permanent wrinkles.

Reverse your procedure when you untie your tie.  If the smaller end is pulled through the knot can cause the tie to get bent out of shape.






How to Clean a Silk Tie                      top




How to Clean a Silk Tie



Chapter 7 = Custom Neckties, Bowties, etc.



Custom Ties

Click here for contact info on how to order custom ties.







Make-Your-Own-Tie Patterns


Michael Landman has a book in print form only that shows how you can create your own necktie and bowtie patterns.  He lives in Australia.



Contact Info:



(Note:  Tell Michael you heard from me in this ebook!  Thanks.)








Custom Shirts

Best Custom Shirts

Create your custom shirt (for men or women) securely online.  Tailored custom shirts that reflect your individuality.  With a time-honored reputation in New York City for over 30 years.
Chapter 8 = Shopping                        top


Neckties Plus


Pure silk unbranded Italian ties!




Raffaello Ties is the Number One Online Tie and Handbag Store and sells Armani, Gucci, Versace, Prada, Ferragamo and many more.



Croata Online (Europe)

Croata Online – Buy neckties from the country that the tie originated from!



Belisi Fashion

Get 3 hand-made silk ties for $3!



Paul Fredrick

Clearance Neckties starting at $9.50



Tie Luxe

For the Guy Who Smokes and Drinks



Infectious Awareables

Neckties and other clothing items that have images of diseases on them:  AIDS, influenza, anthrax, E. coli, Ebola, etc, etc.  This is done to raise awareness of these diseases and their devastating effects on people.




Shop five (5) stores at once!  Brands Boutique and Luxury Vintage sell neckties, etc.  The other stores are Italy’s Outlet, Designers LA, and Value Bags.







Free shipping on all orders over $150! (They sell ties:  Look at nav menu on left, under “Shop What’s Hot”, and look for “Ties.”)




Neckties and Bowties


Neckties is the place to buy designer and novelty ties of almost every theme.  You’ll find neckties made of silk, cotton, polyester, wool, denim, acetate, rubber, and wood.  They offer over 300 brands of neckties and accessories (includes bowties also!).




CLICK HERE for Wild Ties at Wildly low prices!  40% off retail on most neckties!



Tie Warehouse (UK)

They sell all kinds of neckties (plain, patterned, novelty, etc) as well as bowties for men and boys.  They also sell cummerbunds.




Neckties, Accessories, and Clothing etc.

Forzieri (Italy)

Forzieri, in Florence, Italy, sells neckties as well as clothes and other accessories.  The best of Italian fashion!



Stacy Adams

Stacy Adams is more than shoes.  From head to toe:  We cover your style from hip-hop to silky soul.



The Tie Lock

The most innovative new product for men, a great item for all professional men. The Tie Lock™ invisibly restrains a man's necktie.






Custom Shirts, etc

Best Custom Shirts

Create your custom shirt (for men or women) securely online.  Tailored custom shirts that reflect your individuality.  With a time-honored reputation in New York City for over 30 years.




Formal Wear – Men’s

Clermont Direct (UK)

Clermont Direct - We specialize in selling gentlemen’s formal clothing at factory outlet prices. If you are fed up with renting and are looking to buy a dinner jacket, dinner suit, dress shirt, or any other eveningwear, at affordable prices, we can help you.



Jos. A. Bank

The expert in men’s apparel.  Formal wear, sportswear, business dress and business casual.



Tuxedos Direct

The Right Cut Makes the Man




Business and Casual Wear – Men’s, Women’s, and/or Kids

Thomas Pink (UK)

Thomas Pink is London's leading Jermyn Street shirt maker. Pink creates the finest, luxury shirts for men and women. Men's wear, Women's wear, occasional wear, formal shirts, Ties, socks, cufflinks are all available.



Jos. A. Bank

The expert in men’s apparel.  Formal wear, sportswear, business dress and business casual.



Rochester, Big & Tall

Cutter & Buck at Rochester Big & Tall



Savile Row Company (UK)

The Savile Row Company offers quality British business shirts and suits at affordable prices!



Sierra Trading Post

Sierra Trading Post: save 35-70% on casual apparel, dress clothing, travel gear, outdoor clothing, footwear, home furnishings, and outdoor gear!






Fine, quality men’s shoes:  dress, tuxedo, casual, boot and accessories.



Shoe MGK

Shoe Cleaner & Leather Cleaner that Conditions.  100% Money Back GUARANTEE!






GigaGolf's commitment is to offer the latest in golf technology at affordable prices. We do this by manufacturing golf equipment with only the best names in component heads, shafts and grips.




Name brand used golf balls at under half the cost of new golf balls. We also carry a large selection of golf clubs and feature exceptional customer service.




Gifts – Jewelry

alle’ Fine Jewelry

alle' Fine Jewelry now offering Free Fed-Ex 2nd-Day Holiday Shipping.






Chic and sleek





Fine diamonds and timeless jewelry.  Quality.  Value.  Expert Advice.



Ora Jewels

They sell fine quality jewelry direct to consumer at discount prices - over 50 Years on Fifth Ave. in the world famous Diamond District of NYC.



Gifts – Electronics

Cambridge Soundworks

Need help?  Let Cambridge SoundWorks help you choose a DVD players, receivers, speakers, CD players.  Once you understand choices, the decisions are easy.





Madison Avenue Mall

This store sells an eclectic mixture of furs, jewelry, electronics, fragrances, and travel.



Adam Leathers

Leather for everyone:  Ladies, men, kids, motorcycle, fashion, and western.  Their apparel such as chaps, duster coats, jackets, pants, jeans, shirts and vests.  And last but not least accessories such as belts, buckles, boots, shoes, gloves, hats, purses, and bags! (Whew!  Are you ready to shop, or what?)



Shoe MGK

Shoe Cleaner & Leather Cleaner that Conditions.  100% Money Back GUARANTEE!



Magazine Supermarket

Click to save up to 85% on sports magazines!




FREE SHIPPING on orders of $49 or more at BAMM.COM. Coupon Code: FREESHIP49AF




Men, shop for clothes and accessories (also for women, children, electronics, furniture, etc, etc).



International Jock

International Jock offers men's sports apparel, underwear and swimwear - jockstraps, athletic supporters and support briefs, hard & soft cups with jockstrap, compression shorts, thongs & men's underwear.

FTD.COM is an Internet and telephone marketer of flowers and specialty gifts (plants and gourmet items).  They provide same-day delivery of floral orders to nearly 100 percent of the U.S. population, as well as international floral delivery network of 50,000 affiliated FTD Florists in 154 countries.



United Shades

Designer sunglasses.  5% off all purchases.  Plus seasonal specials

Chapter 9 = Just for Fun                   top



Three Laws of Fashion

By Jerry Carmack



When it comes to deciding what clothes to wear, there are three (3) different kinds of people:

1.  Those who are clueless about fashion.

2.  Those who try to fit in by wearing the same thing as everyone else.

3.  Those who see what is current fashion, and knowingly dress differently.

People who are clueless about fashion (the Holy Ignorants), think it’s a waste of time dressing “properly” and feel that developing the “inner child” or they “follow their heart,” etc is far more important than outward show.  Some Holy Ignorants show their contempt of our society by dressing in such a way that from a distance, they may be mistaken for street people.

It’s actually very easy to be a Holy Ignorant, all you have to do is ignore all sense of fashion and wear what you what, when you want, and how you want.  You will be seen as lazy, a bum, or mistaken for a street person (as I mentioned earlier) by those who try to blend in.  However, other Holy Ignorants will think of you as finding the “Holy Grail” of enlightment of your soul-like they have.  If you have attained any measure of success, then you will be regard as a hero by other Holy Ignorants.

Then there are those who try to fit in (the Fashionables).  You’ll notice what everyone else is wearing or even see trends coming and dress accordingly.  You’ll get the praise


and admiration of other Fashionables.  You’ll have to spend a great deal of time and money (more money than time, actually) desperately trying to fit in and do so four times a year (fall, winter, spring, and summer).  It’s really a waste of money and time trying to do this unless you’re wealthy.  Then you have the money at least (but you may not have the time) to spend trying to “keep up with the Jones.”

Finally, you may among those who don’t ignore fashion, but you do *not* worship it either.  You see the Holy Ignorants with their (sometimes) street person appearance and the Fashionables, who are working very hard at blending in.  But you see a better way than both.  You don’t ignore fashion, but you don’t completely follow everything either.  You want to be different.  How?  Note the following:

1.  To be consistent is the enemy.  Don’t wear the same color patterns every season.  You need to construct lots of storage space (if you don’t have any) with many bins to store clothes you’ll not use until 2-3 year in the future.  This way you can vary the kind of clothes you wear each season and be different enough so you’re not a Holy Ignorant, but not blend in either.

2.  Be an expert on one accessory.  The other key to being different is take one accessory and work all the clothes you wear around that.  For females, that may be necklaces, earrings, scarf’s, etc.  For males, that’s mostly neckties.  When you do the accessory thing, you’ll stand out from the crowd and still be fashionable.

3.  Never buy retail (except for 4 below).  Don’t buy retail when you can buy second-hand / used.  What?!  You say?  I wouldn’t be caught dead in the “poor people’s area.”  You don’t have to.  Go to wealthy neighborhoods and you’ll be surprised how much you’ll save at Salvation Army, consignment stores, etc in that area. 



4.  Have a fashionable outfit.  Is the author contradicting himself?  (Duh:  “Never buy retail”?!)  No, not really.  You need to go out buy one outfit that’s good for all seasons.  You do that by getting basic colors (like dark blue) and accessorize according to the seasons first and your mood second.

5.  Always pick another color.  When the fashion is scarlet, choose bluish-red.  If it’s blue, go with reddish-blue, etc.  This way you’re in fashion, yet doing your thing.

6.  Guided use of a mixture of colors.  Never be afraid to experiment with clashing colors.  You’ll look fashionable *your* way and the Holy Ignorants will admire you with looks and the Fashionables will praise you with their mouths!




Reproductive Behavior of the Ordinary Necktie (Strangulus Polyestrus) [8]
Dr. Horace P. Foulard-Kravatz, Ph.D.

It has been observed for some time that Strangulus Polyestrus has a reproductive cycle closely related to their storage environment, but until now, this behavior has never been documented.


For the initial phase of this study, four groups of 20 Strangulus P. were used. The first was a control group, hung neatly on a tie rack in an open room. Over the course of six months, no reproductive behavior was observed.


The second group consisted of 20 Strangulus P. hung on a tie rack in a closed closet. After six months in this closet, it was found that no new Strangula had been produced, although several had fallen to the floor during the process of trying to reproduce.


The third group consisted of 20 Strangulus P. flung carelessly into a dresser drawer, which was then closed and sealed for six months. When the drawer was finally opened, it was found that the adult Strangula had been promiscuous indeed, resulting in the formation of seven new Strangula. The coloring of these adolescent Strangula indicated that the Gaudy sub-species has a shorter or more successful reproductive cycle, prompting the research described in the latter part of this study.




The fourth and final group of 20 Strangulus P. was assembled at the request of a colleague who insisted that the best place for breeding Strangula was the back seat of a car. This method did prove to be the most productive attempt, although it initially got off to a slow start. At the beginning of the experiment, the dormant Strangula were simply laid neatly across the back seat of the car. No reproductive behavior was observed until they were eventually swept aside to make room for passengers, and ultimately kicked under the driver's and passenger's side seats, at which point they not only began to produce at an astonishing, if not outright whorish rate, but also began to display significant signs of territorial belligerence, often attacking the feet and hands of observing scientists. Again, the overwhelming majority of the offspring belonged to the Gaudy sub-species.


This preponderance of Strangulus Polyestrus Gaudy, and a need to waste the remainder of a significant federal grant to ensure continued funding, prompted additional research to contrast and compare the reproductive cycle of Gaudy to the other major sub-species of Strangulus P.: Spotted and Drab. For this phase, 20 adult Strangula of each sub-species were shoved hurriedly into drawers which were subsequently sealed for a period of two months.


After two months, the Drab specimens were still languorously indulging in foreplay, which seemed to consist mainly of estimating one's net worth and making trite and insincere comments about other Strangula texture, color, or cooking ability. The Spotted specimens were crusting up nicely and had begun to exude a weird, but not altogether nauseating, odor. The Gaudy specimens, on the other hand, were not only procreating at a scandalous rate, but had established a crude transmission device and were broadcasting talk shows with themes along the lines of "Ketchup: Aphrodisiac or



Communist Menace", and "Women Who Love Piet Mondrians and the Men Who Wear Them".


It was at this time that the study was dropped abruptly due to intervention from the Dean of the University, who guaranteed tenure only if the damn report would be published already.



(For why this funny story was written, see below)

I wrote this [article above] for a friend of mine who has a habit of throwing his neckties into the back seat of his car after taking them off. We had this running gag about how, when car-cleaning time came around, he always took out more neckties than he threw back there. [9]








The Ultimate, Definitive, Guide to Clark Kent’s Ties                       top



This website gives the complete lowdown on *all* the ties that Dean Cain’s character Clark Kent wore in the series “Lois & Clark:  The New Adventures of Superman.”



(Tell the author/webmaster Jerry Carmack sent you via this ebook.  Thanks)








The World’s Most Hideous Neckties



“There are some very interesting and informative pages on the Internet.

There are also some very pointless pages.

This is a pointless page.”

This website goes into some detail (with thumbnails/enlargements of neckties) on the webmaster and his necktie collection.  Many of his colleagues noticed the webmaster was wearing what they considered hideous neckties and encouraged him to publish his necktie collection on the internet.  And he did.











Chapter 10 = Bye!             top


Thanks for stopping by.  As we say in the South (southern US): 


Ya’ll come back now, hear?!






[3] Windsor Knot   necktie



[4] Pratt Knot-Shelby Knot



[5] How to Fold a Pocket Square

[6] History of Neckwear by Alan Flusser


[7]  Chris Rovny’s email



[9] How this article was written.